Khong Nee Koo, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Noriah Bidin, Mukhlis A Rahman
Magnetic magnetite (Fe 3 O 4) nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention in both fundamental research and practical applications over the past decades. Down to the nanoscale, superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with only a single magnetic domain exhibit high magnetic susceptibility, which provides a stronger and faster magnetic response. Their superparamagnetic properties together with other intrinsic properties such as low toxicity, high surface area-to-volume ratio and simple separation methodology, making them ideal for environmental remediation, biomedical, and agricultural applications. This review discusses three conventional wet chemical methods, including chemical co-precipitation, sol-gel synthesis and thermal decomposition for the preparation of superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with controlled size and magnetic properties.